It's a fairly common myth that African-Americans and other people with dark skin don't get sunburned or get skin cancer. Unfortunately, this is not true. While Caucasians are definitely at higher risk, skin cancer still represents 1 to 2% of all cancers diagnosed in non-Hispanic black people and 4 to 5% in Hispanics. Because of this myth, however, a skin cancer diagnosis tends to come at a later stage, partly because it's harder to see on dark skin and partly because dark-skinned people are less likely to be screened regularly.
What causes skin cancer?
Most skin cancers are caused by excessive UV exposure, whether from the sun or from tanning beds. Because of this, people with higher levels of melanin (the level of dark color in one's skin and hair) have a certain level of protection, but that protection is not enough to prevent skin damage. The following factors strongly affect risk:
- Lack of sunscreen when outside or in a tanning bed. Sixty-three percent of African-American participants in one survey said they never used sunscreen. The primary protector of our skin, other than wearing protective clothing, is the proper use of sunscreen. Dark-skinned people are less likely to use sunscreen because they consider it unnecessary since they don't tend to burn.
- Sunburn. More than five sunburns in your life doubles your risk of skin cancer. While it does take longer for dark-skinned people to burn, it still happens.
- Having a family history of skin cancer increases the risk. Your risk of any kind of skin cancer is higher if you have a relative with skin cancer.
Genetics and ethnicity, which decide the color of your skin, can also play a part in the type of skin cancer you are more likely to develop. The two most common types of non-melanoma skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
- Hispanics, Chinese, Japanese and Caucasians are most at risk for basal cell carcinoma
- African-Americans and Asian Indians are more at risk for squamous cell carcinoma.
Melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, is the third most common among all groups. African Americans are also more likely to develop acral lentiginous melanoma, which is found on the palms, soles, and nailbeds, and which tends to be faster growing and more likely to spread to the lymph nodes.
How can you reduce your risk of skin cancer?
So, what should people of color do in the hot Virginia and North Carolina sun?
- Wear at least SPF 30 sunscreen regularly. Apply to dry skin at least 20 minutes before going outdoors and reapply at least every two hours, more often if you are heavily sweating. As a note, natural skin protection in African-Americans is 13.4, compared to 3.4 in Caucasians, so your natural protection is still lower than what is really needed. Remember that swimming or bathing can increase the effect of the sun. Use water resistant or sweat resistant sunscreen. This is effective for at least 40 minutes, so try to limit your swimming time and reapply immediately when you get out of the water.
Related Reading: Skin Cancer Prevention Tips: Common Sunscreen Mistakes
- Stay in the shade when you have the choice. If it's very hot and you are heading into a more exposed area, consider portable shade like an umbrella or parasol. Even simple things like walking on the shaded side of the street can be helpful.
- Protect yourself with clothing. Particularly, wear shoes that cover your entire foot rather than sandals. For genetic reasons, African-Americans are at particular risk of skin cancer on their feet. Wear a wide-brimmed hat. Wear pants and long sleeves when possible.
- Never use tanning beds or sun lamps. The use of tanning beds is increasing amongst African-Americans.
How can you increase early detection?
One of the biggest problems for dark-skinned people concerning skin cancer is a tendency for it not to be detected early enough. Here are a couple of tips to increase early detection and improve outcomes.
- Do a skin self-exam every month. Look for the following, paying particular attention to the bottoms of your feet, toenails, lower legs, groin and buttocks (60 to 75% of tumors on very dark-skinned people show up in areas where they have less pigment such as the palms, soles, or around the nails):
- Dark spots, growths or darker patches that are bleeding or changing. Asians often see a roundish, raised brown, or black growth
- Changes to existing moles
- Sores that don't heal, heal and return, or are on scars or injuries
- Rough or dry patches of skin
- Dark lines under or around your nails
- Odd marks inside your mouth
Are there other reasons to use sunscreen?
There are other reasons why even very dark-skinned people should use sunscreen. Skin damage from the sun affects all ethnicities. Sun damage can include:
- Actinic keratosis, which forms scaly, rough patches of skin or raised bumps, which can come and go and itch. Up to 10% of actinic keratoses turn into cancer later. African-Americans are particularly prone to this.
- Wrinkles, age spots, and other age-related skin damage. Your skin will look younger if you use sunscreen.
So, the best solution for everyone is to use sunscreen. Look for one which is designed for darker complexions if possible, but don't let the fear of looking a little "chalky" stop you from using sunscreen, especially if you're going to the beach. Everyone needs to protect themselves from the sun, no matter the color of their skin.